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Natural gas is the first choice for China to develop non-coal energy
Source:中国天然气网 | Author:yongheng417 | Publish time: 2015-11-04 | 1176 Views | Share:
China has been adhering to the energy security strategy to meet energy demand mainly based on domestic resources. Domestic energy resources have long met more than 90 per cent of energy demand. This is on the assumption that domestic coal resources can support China's long-term energy demand. However, it is increasingly difficult to rely on domestic resources to secure energy supplies. In 1993, China became a net oil importer. In 2008, China became a net importer of coal and the proportion of natural gas consumption increased.
Will China's energy mix continue to support China's energy needs in the future? This problem has been mainly focused on coal resources. Currently, China's coal reserves are only 31 years old (2013 data) compared with 266 in the United States, 452 in Russia and 100 years in India. Moreover, China's coal resources are generally buried deep, and resources buried more than 1,500 meters are not worth mining. Although some say China still has a lot of coal to use in the region, the cost of transportation is huge, and long-term transport itself consumes a lot of energy.
Maintaining coal as the main energy resource is contrary to sustainable development. For a long time dependence on coal resources, while maintaining the lower energy prices in China, a contribution to the competitiveness of China's economy in the world, however, this is because the coal energy contains a variety of external cost into consideration. We pay a huge price for this coal - based energy structure, if the costs of environmental damage, water and land resources, and mining are difficult. In March 2012, the national electrical supervisor will be the club's official website published a report some environmental groups, think that China's top ten power generation group of the total coal consumption accounted for 1/5 of the total coal production, coal consumption caused by environmental damage as much as the year is 87 billion yuan RMB. In 2011, the environmental cost of coal-fired power generation is 0.0185 yuan per kilowatt hour. However, this figure is likely to understate the environmental costs of coal-fired power generation because it does not calculate indirect losses. In 2002, for example, acid rain and sulfur dioxide pollution control, released in 2002, admitted that the economic loss caused by acid rain was 110 billion yuan per year. The main source of acid rain is coal burning. This data contains only direct economic losses of acid rain, which does not include indirect and long-term losses of ecological deterioration. In addition to the acid rain pollution caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide, to coal as the main body of the energy structure in China also brings nox emissions, carbon, water loss and contamination, sediment and a series of environmental problems, and damage health, occupational disease, mining and other social problems.
In fact, China can achieve economic miracles without coal as its main source of energy. The economic growth and social development of any country are not based on natural resource endowments, but by the hard work and innovative spirit of human beings. Both from the environmental cost, social cost and, therefore, from the economic cost and resource support capability, China's energy structure, must implement the significant transformation is from coal with coal as the main body of the energy to the energy. Obviously, natural gas is the first choice to develop non-coal energy
In non-coal energy, there are hydropower, nuclear power, oil and natural gas, as well as renewable energy sources such as wind power, solar energy and bioenergy. Due to its technical characteristics, wind power, solar energy and bio-energy are not yet in the technological and economic conditions of large-scale development and utilization, which can only be used as supplements, but can not play a key role.
The development of China's hydropower development has had the very big, if continue to increase the hydropower development, there is no doubt that only the original ecological river in southwest China, such as the nujiang, the lancang river, river, the yarlung zangbo river, such as the project has a huge risk and ecological environment. Moreover, although water and electricity is stable, there are still great fluctuations between different years and different seasons. The current share of hydropower is close to its limits.
Oil as an important chemical raw materials, liquid fuel and only applies to transportation fuel in the energy field, if the power generation fuel, certainly is not the economy, and China's transportation energy demand basic has peaked. As a result, only nuclear and natural gas are the only alternatives to coal. At present, China seems to be inclined to develop nuclear power, but compared with nuclear power, natural gas is more feasible and competitive as a clean energy source. This can be summarized as the following benefits.
First, the high thermal efficiency of natural gas can greatly improve energy efficiency and reduce energy waste.
Second, natural gas is a typical clean energy. If desulfurization is normal, it produces almost no air pollutants and no waste water waste. In addition, it has the lowest carbon content compared to other conventional energy sources other than hydropower, which still counts as low-carbon energy.
Third, natural gas is used as an energy source, whether it is used for household cooking, automobile fuel or power generation, and its process is mature, simple operation and high safety factor.
Fourth, compared with natural gas, nuclear power technology is complex, costly, and has greater security risks. Uranium resources also need to be imported. At the same time, nuclear power needs to build a matching thermal power plant, and if coal-fired power generation is used as the regulating power plant, its overall greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions are still not low.
Fifth, the long-term supply potential of natural gas is huge and the future price will remain low. At present, Australia, Russia, Norway, Qatar and Iran, and even the United States have been or are being building gas capacity (including liquefied natural gas, or LNG), Europe is also likely to develop shale gas production, the future international market well supplied. The trend towards decoupling of natural gas from oil prices is becoming ever more evident, and even lower than coal in the future.
Sixth, gas supply can use import resources, can also through the development of domestic natural gas resources and a variety of unconventional gas resources, such as coal bed methane, tight gas, shale gas, acid gas, etc. From the import channel, it can be imported through cross-border pipelines or imported LNG at sea.
Seventh, with the help of gas pipeline construction, natural gas can be connected to the whole country and countryside like the power network, and become a clean, efficient and relatively cheap, high-quality energy.
Eighth, through the transformation of natural gas energy, great economic opportunities can be created to drive the rapid development of related industries. The construction of natural gas pipeline network covering both urban and rural areas and import sources in China will greatly improve the quality of life and energy security of our residents.
The "revolution in production", "the technological revolution" and the strengthening of international cooperation on energy security, as proposed by general secretary xi jinping, are important guiding strategies for promoting energy transformation. The development of natural gas energy and the transformation of China into clean energy, low-carbon and efficient energy, and the reduction of large-scale smog pollution have become an inevitable trend. China's energy development strategy action plan (2014-2020) proposed that by 2020, China coal proportion of primary energy consumption control within 62%, the proportion of natural gas in primary energy consumption to 10% above, gas trunk pipeline mileage reached 120000 kilometers above, urban residents basic use natural gas.
In the future energy structure adjustment, which can be priority in China's eastern coastal areas and sichuan, chongqing, xinjiang, gansu, shaanxi and other natural gas energy resource conditions of regional development, through the haze governance key areas for the replacement of gas power plant of coal-fired power plants, industrial big clients, specialized LNG terminal and terminal synchronous construction and development, and accelerate the natural gas trunk pipeline network and the construction of urban network. Predictably, with the development of natural gas energy, the phenomenon of haze and acid rain in China will improve rapidly. (author: liu qiang, director of the energy research office of the institute of quantitative economics and technology economics of the Chinese academy of social sciences, secretary-general of global energy security think tank BBS)